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Semicircular vault forms are depicted in Urartian architectural representations, and they are also known from bridge constructions of the Sasanian period, for example, the so-called “bridge of Valerian” at Šūštar, which is considered to have been built by Roman engineers after 260 c.e.
Parabolic vault forms began to appear in Sasanian architecture.
Cut-stone architecture appeared in Persia in the Urartian period, around the beginning of the 1st millennium b.c.e.
Sometimes mighty stone boulders weighing several tons were broken up into smaller pieces and used in construction.
The Achaemenids also made extensive use of this technique at Persepolis and other sites.
They had probably learned it from the Armenians, who had received it as part of their cultural heritage from the Urartians.
In Islamic cities brick was sometimes used to pave major streets (Kiani, pp. Techniques Already in ancient Persia, as in Hittite Anatolia in the 2nd millennium b.c.e., the technique of making use of the rock surface of a site as foundations for walls was known. the Urartians developed this technique to the highest level of perfection (Kleiss, 1976, pp. Flat terraces of different sizes and elevations were carved out of the uneven rock surface following the specific conformation of the site, thus preparing a series of level platforms of the required dimensions, on each of which walls could be erected.
Those parts of the rock on which there was to be no construction were generally left unworked.
In ancient, medieval, and modern times road embankments have been constructed of gravel, either coarse or fine, and paved with relatively unworked stone blocks.When the surface of the site was somewhat concave, rubble foundations, mostly for mud-brick walls, were generally preferred.Larger pieces of broken stone were carefully laid in courses with smaller stones filling the interstices; toward the top pebbles of diminishing size were used, in order to produce a level surface.Alternatively, it can be tempered and formed into large blocks with more or less rectangular sides; the most common dimensions of such blocks, even today, are about 80 x 80 x 60 cm.Mud can also be manufactured into bricks and either dried ().